This image is to be found in several places on the web and in books:
ISBN: 0415061377 Greek and Roman Technology: A Sourcebook by John W Humphrey p. 316 Section 8.30 Fig. 17 Design for a Vitruvian Water-Screw. Note that on page xiii permissions are recorded for several copyrighted images but not for this one.
The image appears with no source cited at http://www.math.nyu.edu/~crorres/Archimedes/Screw/VitScrew.gif http://www.math.nyu.edu/~crorres/Archimedes/Screw/SourcesScrew.html#vitruvius captioned "Construction of the water screw"
It also appears at http://www.redstoneprojects.com/trebuchetstore/archimidesescrewcutaway.gif http://www.redstoneprojects.com/trebuchetstore/archimedesscrew.html beside the Morgan translation of the Vitruvius passage.
Those two .gif images are not identical, but overlay perfectly when aligned. They differ in the way the transparent pixels were selected. This suggests they were not independently scanned.
The image also appears at http://www.palmers.ac.uk/internet/Previous%20Events/Eric%20Excellence%20day/webs2003/PYTHON%20WEBSITE/VitScrew.gif http://www.palmers.ac.uk/internet/Previous%20Events/Eric%20Excellence%20day/webs2003/PYTHON%20WEBSITE/Arcscrew.htm
The actual ancient latin text states that there is an illustration at the end of the manuscript.
ISBN: 1417969571 Vitruvius: The Ten Books on Architecture translated by Morris H. Morgan Copyright 1914 Harvard University Press; the copyright is expired.
Vitruvius: The Ten Books on Architecture. Vitruvius. Morris Hicky Morgan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. London: Humphrey Milford. Oxford University Press. 1914.
The image is on page 295.
The Perseus project has the text and two images:
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In the case of these images, it is clear that there are no copyright holders, since the images were published in 1914.
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Clearly, this statement is overly broad. Some of the materials are in the public domain. A compilation copyright does not entitle the holder to prohibit copying of text not subject to copyright.